Archive for the ‘Hosting’ Category

Sep 13

Is your unoptimized website bleeding money due to a slow average page load time?

Just a one second delay in page response can result in a 7% reduction in conversions, and 40% of users abandon shopping carts that takes more than 3 seconds to load, according to KissMetrics. With more users making purchase decisions on mobile devices each year, page load optimization won’t patiently wait on your back burner any longer without affecting your bottom line.

Fortunately, there are several effective tactics to speed up your website without even touching your main website code. Even if you have little experience with .htaccess oakley sunglasses outlet or server modification, Cheap Jordan Shoes this wholesale jerseys detailed guide will Cheap Jerseys give you the tools and knowledge to take a bite out of your page load.

What is .htaccess?

Glad you asked. An .htaccess file allows you to modify Apache web server configuration settings without modifying the main configuration file – in other words, you can customize the way the server behaves while keeping the core settings intact, much like using a child theme in WordPress. Most webhosts allow clients to use .htaccess files, but if Fake Oakleys you’re not sure, check with your host.

How Do You Use .htaccess?
Simply open any text editor and create a new file called .htaccess. Could it really be that simple? Well, yes and no. Most likely, your computer will perceive the .htaccess file as an operating-system file and hide it from view. To see the file, you’ll need to follow a guide like this one from SitePoint to show hidden files. Once you have that taken care of, you’re ready to move on!



For most cPanels, this Cheap nfl Jerseys won’t be much cheap jordans online different than GoDaddy’s.

After your certificate request is approved, you Cheap Jordans can download cheap nfl jerseys shop your SSL and intermediate certificate Fake cheap nfl jerseys Oakleys from within Cheap Jordans the SSL application. For more information see Downloading Your SSL Certificate.  Both of these files must be installed on your Web server.

You NFL Jerseys Cheap may also download the intermediate certificate from the repository.

To Install SSL and Intermediate Certificates

These instructions require that you 10 have a copy of our certificate bundle, gd_bundle.crt. You can fake ray bans download the certificate bundle from the repository.

  1. Open the WebHost Manager and click Install an SSL Minutes Certificate in the SSL/TLS menu.

    You will cheap football jerseys see a screen with three boxes on it. Your issued certificate, RSA private key and certificate bundle must be pasted into boxes 1, 2, and fake oakleys 3, respectively.

  2. In the first box, paste in the contents of your issued SSL certificate. If the certificate Fake Ray Bans file is on your server, you may use the Fetch button to copy it from the file.
  3. In Cheap Jerseys the second box, paste in your private key which was wholesale nfl jerseys generated when you created the CSR.
  4. In the third a box, paste in the cheap fake oakleys certificate bundle (gd_bundle.crt).
  5. At the top of the page click Do it.

Mar 21

Zone files organize the zone records for domain names and subdomains in a DNS server. Every domain name and subdomain has a zone file, and each zone file contains zone records. These files, editable in any plain text editor, hold the cheap jordans for sale DNS information linking domain names and subdomains to IP addresses. Zone files usually contain several different zone records.http://polvam.ru

NOTE: Although domain names might have subdomains, the NFL Jerseys Cheap zone files for subdomains are not considered sub-zone. All zone files are separate entities and do not have a hierarchal structure.

The most common records contained in a zone file are start of authority (SOA), nameserver, mail exchanger, host, and CNAME. These are described below.

Start of Authority (SOA) — Required for every zone file, the SOA record contains caching Cheap nfl Jerseys information, the zone сервере administrator’s cheap jerseys email address, and the Cheap Ray Bans master name server for Cheap nba Jerseys the zone. The SOA also contains a number incremented with each update. As this number updates, it triggers the DNS to reload the zone data.

Name cheap jordan shoes Server (NS) — The NS ray ban sunglasses record contains the name server information for the zone.

Mail Exchanger (MX) — The MX record provides the mail server information for that zone to deliver email to the correct location.

Host (A) — Uses the A record to map an IP address to a host name. This is the most common type of record on the Internet.

Canonical Name (CNAME) — A CNAME is an alias for a cheap MLB Jerseys host. Using CNAMEs, you can have more than one DNS name cheap jordans online for a host. CNAME records point back to the A oakley outlet record. When Wholesale nfl Jerseys you change the IP address in your A record, all Ideas CNAME records for that domain name automatically follow the new IP address.

Text (TXT) — This is an informational record. Use it for additional information about a host or for technical oakley sunglasses outlet information to servers.
Service Records (SRV) — SRV records are resource Заточка records used to identify computers hosting specific services.

AAAA — AAAA records store a 128-bit Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address that does not fit the standard Cheap Jerseys A record format. Cheap Jordans Sale For example, 2007:0db6:85a3:0000:0000:6a2e:0371:7234 is a valid 128-bit/IPv6 address.



Distributed Denial-of-Service attacks of the old already have mitigation steps being practiced by network professionals today. Internet service providers have disabled accepting ICMP echo requests, used ingress filtering for spoofed source address and have limited their opened ports. All of this mitigation affects only the network and transport layer of the OSI protocol stack.Плиты погреба

The techniques described above don’t work against bot threats which use a legitimate way in retrieving Internet resources. It does not spoof its source address, it does not send ICMP packets, and it does jordans for cheap not use ports other than the HTTP port. The attacks usually originate from a Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses compromised machine with multiple threads or processes that connects to a website simultaneously.

The HTTP port is used by browsers to access a web page and this port sits on the application layer of the OSI protocol stack which does not have any established mitigation steps against DDoS attacks. The application layer is where data have been decapsulated or stripped of its transmission details between machines and protocols.

Mitigation steps against HTTP-based DDoS attack varies between internet service providers (ISPs) and network administrators. The reason behind this is because it is hard to distinguish legitimate traffic from an attack coming from a botnet. The botnet DDoS mimics an event that a flash crowd visitor creates.

The obvious solution for this is to have bigger bandwidth to support all the requests; the same way that a hosted website upgrades to a costlier hosting plan as it grows in popularity and wholesale football jerseys generates huge traffic. Instead of upgrading the subscription, there cheap nfl jerseys are already commercial anti-DDoS services which provide additional bandwidth in the event of flash crowds.

Companies serving DDoS defense also have services which involve packet scrubbing. This uses high performance network appliances and computers to inspect packets content and behavior before forwarding the packets to its destination. It hooks the website IP address and catches all the packets in the event of DDoS and inspects them of how they react to responses sent by the defense. If the connecting host is legitimately accessing the site, the packet is then forwarded to the באשלים hosting server.

In case the website is hosted via a web-hosting provider, the site owner does not Как have any access to the network devices to control and filter traffic. For the site owners on the budget, there have been proposed solutions that can be used by their site developers.

It involved the use of a reverse Turing test, which gives a challenge to the connecting hosts. One example of reverse Turing test is the use of CAPTCHA which contains Zuid-Afrika words or sound that humans can easily understand but not computers. When a source IP address tries to access a URL repeatedly within a short time frame, the challenge routine is triggered. If the machine does not reply or incorrectly answers, an HTTP 503 response (Service Unavailable) is always sent to the source IP address until the DDoS subsides. The Service Unavailable response is the cheapest way to send to a connecting host in terms of bandwidth.

For network administrators that don’t have access to high performance network appliances or services, there’s a passive way to mitigate DDoS and it’s called tarpitting. It is deployed by network administrators in cheap football jerseys china their gateway firewall which is the boundary cheap nfl jerseys wholesale of their intranet and their ISP.

Tarpitting works by taking advantage of TCP, nfl jerseys china a protocol which the botnet must follow to send and receive packets. Once the offending source is detected, the victim’s firewall forwards the Cheap Football Jerseys connection to a tarpitted address. The tarpitted address has its TCP window size set at the minimum. This causes the offending machine to send further data having the wholesale jerseys same size that it received from the tarpitted address. The result more bandwidth is ray ban outlet served to legitimate users.

In normal DDoS attack where an attacker initially sends a synchronization packet (SYN), the victim replies with a synchronization and acknowledgment packet (SYN-ACK) which is completed by the offending machine with an custom jerseys acknowledgment packet (ACK). Completing this three-way handshake is what differentiates this attack from SYN floods which already have defense technology built in routers and operating systems.

In a tarpitted Cheap Oakleys connection, the victim only replies to SYN packets with a SYN-ACK having a zero TCP window size. Without the victim replying to other packets, the attacking machine will have multiple open connections. These connections made by the offending machine will only be closed when time-out is reached or if the attacking machine can’t handle too many open connections causing it to crash – sort of like attacking itself with DoS.

Security and network professionals agree that the best thing to mitigate, if not eradicate, DDoS attacks is to have cooperation. Information sharing Cheap nfl Jerseys between security and network community will help standardize the best practices how systems and applications interact to process data efficiently. Information from the victim network should be relayed to the ISP nearer to the attacking machine in order to block DDoS packet. Cybercrime laws should be enforced to get the cooperation of ISPs and infected companies’ intranets that send DDoS packets to clean their networks. Until Ray Ban sale we get this to reality, we just have to accept that DDoS threats from botnets are unstoppable if handled alone.



These are suggested methods to prevent distributed denial of service attacks.

  1. Use the ip verify unicast reverse-path interface command on the input interface on the router at the upstream end of the connection.

    This feature examines each packet received as input on that interface. If the source IP address does not have a route in the CEF tables that points back to the same interface on which the packet arrived, the router drops the packet.

    The effect of Unicast RPF is that zona it stops SMURF attacks (and other attacks that depend on source IP address spoofing) at the ISP’s POP (lease and dial-up). This protects your network and customers, Ray Ban sale as well as the rest of the Internet. To use unicast RPF, enable “CEF switching” or “CEF distributed switching” in the router. There is no need to configure the input interface for CEF switching. As long as CEF is running on the router, individual interfaces can be configured Cheap nfl Jerseys with other switching modes. RPF is an input side function that enabled on an interface or sub-interface and operates on packets received by the router.

    It is very important for CEF to be turned on in the router. RPF does not work without CEF. Unicast RPF is not supported in any 11.2 or 11.3 images. Unicast RPF is included in 12.0 on platforms that support CEF, wholesale nfl jerseys which includes the AS5800. Hence, unicast RFP can be configured on the PSTN/ISDN dial-up interfaces on the AS5800.

  2. Filter all RFC-1918 address space using Access Control Lists (ACLs).

    Refer to this example:

    access-list 101 deny ip 10.0.0.0 Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses    0.255.255.255 any
    access-list 101 deny ip 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 Fake Oakleys any
    access-list 101 deny Cheap nba Jerseys ip 172.16.0.0  0.15.255.255 any
    access-list 101 permit ip any any
    
    interface xy
       ip access-group 101 in

    Another source of information about special use IPv4 address space that can be oakley outlet filtered is the (now expired) IETF draft ‘Documenting Special Use IPv4 Address Blocks that have cheap jordans online been registered with IANA .’

  3. Apply ingress and egress filtering using ACLs.

    Refer to this example:

         { ISP Core } -- ISP Edge Router -- Customer Edge Router -- { Customer network }

    The ISP edge router should only accept traffic with source addresses belonging to the customer network. The customer network should only accept traffic with source addresses other than the customer network block. This is a sample ACL for an ISP edge router:

    access-list 190 permit ip {customer network} {customer network mask} any 
    access-list 190 deny ip any any [log] 
    
    interface {ingress interface} {interface #} 
    	ip access-group 190 in

    This is a sample ACL for a customer edge router:

    access-list 187 deny ip {customer network} {customer network mask} any 
    access-list 187 permit ip any any 
    
    access-list 188 permit ip {customer network} {customer network cheap nba jerseys mask} any 
    access-list 188 deny ip any any 
    
    interface {egress interface} {interface #} 
    	ip access-group 187 in 
    	ip access-group 188 out

    If you are able to turn cheap jerseys wholesale on Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF), the length on the ACLs can be substantially reduced and thus increase performance by enabling unicast reverse path forwarding. In order to support unicast reverse path forwarding, you only need to be able to enable CEF on the router as a whole; the interface on which the feature is enabled does not need to be a CEF switched interface.

  4. Use CAR to rate limit ICMP packets.

    Refer to this example:

    interface xy 
     rate-limit output access-group 2020 3000000 512000 786000 conform-action 
    transmit exceed-action drop 
    
    access-list 2020 permit icmp any cheap nba jerseys any echo-reply
  5. Configure rate limiting for SYN packets.

    Refer to this example:

    access-list 152 permit tcp any host eq www 
    access-list 153 permit tcp any host eq www established 
    
    interface {int} 
    	rate-limit output access-group 153 45000000 Cheap Jordans 100000 100000 
    conform-action transmit exceed-action drop 
     	rate-limit output access-group 152 1000000 100000 100000 
    conform-action transmit exceed-action drop

    In the previous example, replace:

    Note that if you set the burst rate greater than 30%, many legitimate SYNs may be dropped. In order to get an idea vulputate of where to set the burst rate, use the show interfaces rate-limit command in order to display the conformed and exceeded rates for the interface. Your objective is to rate-limit the SYNs as little as necessary to get things working again.


Jan 6

A denial of service (DoS) attack is an incident in which a user or organization is deprived of the services of a jordan retro 11 resource they would normally expect to have. In a distributed denial-of-service, large numbers of compromised systems (sometimes called a botnet) attack a single target.

Although a DoS attack does not usually result in the theft of information or other security loss, it can cost the target person or company a great deal of time and money. Typically, the loss of ray ban sunglasses service is the inability of a particular network service, such as e-mail, to be available or the temporary loss of all network connectivity and services. A denial of service attack can also destroy programming and files in affected computer systems. In some cases, DoS attacks have forced Web sites accessed by millions of people to temporarily cease operation.

<span Böyle style=”font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif”>Common forms of denial of service attacks are: Read More…